About USA Ingredients: for non-USA residents

Sugar: In this blog, sugar means granulated sugar commonly available in the USA.  If you live in a country that granulated sugar is not the most common form of the sugar, then you can use the kind of sugar most available locally in your country. If you use granulated sugar, cookies and pie crusts will be more crispy and crunchy (which I prefer).  However, granulated sugar will make the resulting dessert (very slightly) less moist, and (very slightly) less sweet (that you can feel in your tongue), and (very slightly) less flavorful due to high refining of the sugar.  So you may have to add some salt, mineral, molasses, honey, syrup, etc. to compensate for the shortcomings of granulated sugar.

Milk: Milk that I use for cooking contains 4% fat, which is called whole milk in the USA.

Heavy Cream: Heavy Cream that I use for cooking contains 5 g fat in 15 cc (15 g),  according to the label, which makes the fat content to be 33.3 %.  However, in the USA, the cream labeled “Heavy Cream” should contain at least 36% fat.  Considering there is a round up error, I assume the fat content of my heavy cream is about 36%.


All Purpose Flour: the most common and cheapest flour in the USA, protein content (10.5-11.7%).  It can be easily substituted with the mixture of equal amount of bread flour and cake flour.

Cake Flour: milled from soft wheat, expensive in the USA, protein content (3 g out of 32 g serving, 9.375% for Pillsbury Softasil Cake Flour produced in Ohio, USA).  The gluten content is controlled to be about 8.3%.  But the protein content can vary depending on the crops, seasons, milling facilities, etc.  It seems to be protein content fluctuates between 6% and 9.5%.  Although some websites claim that American Cake Flour has only 6.2% protein or less,  it is not as soft.  The commonly available cake flour has  probably 8-9% protein.)  It can be easily substituted with any flour milled from soft wheat in your country.

Canadian Steak Seasoning: consisting of salt, garlic, black pepper, onion, spices, soy bean oil, red pepper.  You can substitute with these spices mixed.

Brown Sugar: any sugar partially refined will substitute.  There are dark and light brown sugar.  I prefer dark one; but light sugar may be slightly cheaper.  I would add molasse if I want the brown sugar to be darker and more flavorful.

Spice Blend: All Purpose Seasoning, consisting of salt, spices (bay leaves, black pepper, cayenne, celery seed, coriander, cumin, oregano, white pepper), onion, garlic, red pepper, green bell pepper, cilantro, corn flour, chili pepper, sugar, paprika, paprika extract.  You can substitute with these spices mixed.

Hot Chili Seasoning Mix: Ingredients: spice, flour, onion, salt, garlic

Cream of Tartar

Sun Dried Tomatoes

 Canned Beef Broth


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