Archive for the ‘43120 Choux Pastry’ Category

03/22/2011 YO Cream Puffs

Tuesday, March 22nd, 2011

Ingredients: 14 mini pieces

(Choux Pastry)

  • 54.17 g water
  • 20.83 g milk (22.53 g this time)
  • 0.42 g salt
  • 0.83 g sugar
  • 16.67 g unsalted butter, room temperature
  • 25 g cake flour, should be sifted (easy to get lumps)
  • 33.33 g eggs or more (yolk 13.33 g, white 20 g: keep it separated, do not beat, room temperature so that butter would not harden due to cooling): (this time 45 g: yolk 17 g +white 28 g)

(Custard Cream)

  • 20 g sugar
  • 21.4 g egg yolk (this time 17.8 g yolk +3.6 g white)
  • ————————
  • 13.4 g cake flour, twice sifted
  • ——————————
  • 120 cc milk (this time 130 cc)
  • 14 cc heavy cream (to add flavor) (this time 1 TBS)
  • 20 g sugar ( to avoid burning milk)
  • pinch salt
  • ———————–
  • 5.4 g vanilla extract (about 1 tsp)
  • ——————
  • 100 g heavy cream
  • 12 g sugar


  • powdered sugar


(Choux Pastry)

  1. Grease the half sheet pan and wipe all the grease with paper towel as much as one can.  Prepare water sprayer.
  2. Heat water, milk, salt, sugar, butter in butter warmer, in medium heat, while stirring so that butter melts quickly.  (Milk and sugar is for adding flavor. Milk Fat supress the dough’s hardening and viscosity development. Butter should be melted before boiling point so that water would not evaporate too much; or formula loses the balance.) Let it boil vigorously (100C)->increase starch viscocity. 
  3. Turn off the heat.  Add flour, stir with a wooden spatula until powder is incorporated and the dough gets together.
  4. With Medium High Heat, in smearing parallel motion with a wooden spatula, quickly stir.  (80C)  At this stage, there is a thin membrane at the bottom of the pan, and you hear some sizziling sound.
  5. Transfer to anothe bowl.  Let it cool to 65C (to avoid egg coaggulation).  Add 75% of unbeaten eggs. (Unbeaten eggs: to separate licthin from egg white and let egg white work for the structure.) Stir with a wooden spatula. (Here, if one uses stand mixer, it needs to be in the low speed to avoid eggs to be aerated too much. )  Add the remaining gradually while checking the right hardness. The dough becomes glossy and drops from the saptula very slowly and triangle dough remains hung in spatula.  Or when you draw a line with an index finger (dipping up to the first knuckle level)  in about 4 cm deep dough, the line closes quickly following the finger.  (30C)  Preheat oven at 425F. (This time 400F)
  6.  Drop the dough on Silpat with an ice cream scooper.  Spray with water,  to make steam in the oven and help the dough expansion, use wet fork to score.
  7. Bake at 180 C (360F) for 30 min.  (lower than usual since this dough has milk and sugar that easily burn) Turn off the heat and cook 20 more minutes with residual heat. 

(Custard Cream)

  1. In a bowl, mix egg yolk and sugar, use hand mixer until pale. (すりまぜ)
  2. Add flour and mix with a whisk very slowly to minimize gluten developement. (すりまぜ)
  3. Boil milk, sugar, salt, cream in butter warmer, add 1/3 of it to the custard paste above. Mix.  Return it back to the original butter warmer and mix.  (If you mix milk and custard-flour at once, milk cools suddenly and delay the development of alpha-starch and develop gluten’s elasticity.)  Heat with highest heat, while stirring slowly in circular motion with a whisk. 
  4. The dough starts to get tough, stir slowly and patiently in scrubbling motion with a whisk.
  5. It gets glossy, easier to stir, and the bubbles get bigger then cook a little more.  Then turn off the heat. (In this stage the cream drops with thin stripes very swiftly. )
  6. Add vanilla and mix.   Tightly cover with plastic wrap, chill in an ice-water bath, transfer to the refrigerator.  (for at least 8 hours)


  1. When cream is chiled and firmed, use a strainer to strain cream. (I skipped straining. )Whisk the custard until smooth.
  2. Whip heavy cream and sugar to 90% stiffness.  Fold two creams together.
  3. Poke the bottom of the Choux shell, pipe the cream into the shell.
  4. Top with powdered sugar throuth tea strainer if you want.


Based on: シュークリーム、岡田吉之、Book 31, Bibliography

Choux Pastry: original/24

Comparison to Tsuji Choux: 11% less butter, 20% less eggs

Custard Cream’s formula was not given: I made it up myself.






I felt diplomat cream was too rich.

02/16/2011 SC Pate a Choux Ordinaire (Failure)

Wednesday, February 16th, 2011

Ingredients: 5.5 pieces (middle dia = 7.5 – 9.7 cm, bottom dia = 5 cm, height = 3.7 cm)

  • 593 ml (2.5C) water, for steam
  • 2-3 pieces about 2″(5cm) diameter rocks (next time fill the pan with many Lava Rocks)
  • Heavy Duty Metal Pan with 2″(5cm) depth, wide kitchen towel
  • ——————————————
  • water sprayer
  • ——————————-
  • 30.9 g eggs, warm in hot water bath (this time used 35.9g)
  • 10.2 g egg whites, warm in hot water bath
  • ———————
  • 36.6 g water
  • 8.8 g unsalted butter
  • 0.46 g salt
  • ——————
  • 0.31 g sugar
  • 1 drop vanilla extract
  • 25 g bread flour (sifted)
  • 1/8 tsp ammonia bicarbonate (way too much: reduce a lot, or use none.)
  • ———————————-


  1. Place a few clean rocks in a metal pan and place it on the lowet rack of the oven near the door.
  2. Set a shelf in the lower third of the oven with a baking stone on it, preheat at 450F/232C.
  3. Boil 2.5 C water to a very low boil.
  4. Place a baking sheet lined with oven sheet (reusable with tefron coating) on the top of the oven stove near the back vents so that it will get hot. (Or warm the sheet in the oven while you are beating the eggs into the dough.)  Set 1 TBS cookie scooper and water spray bottle nearby.
  5. Bring water, butter, sugar, salt to a full boil in a butter warmer.  Remove from the heat.  Add the flour at once, stir vigorously-> the dough ball pulls away from the pan.  Cook again with meidum heat, stirring with a wooden spatula for at least 3 min, spreading the douhg out and gathering it back up to dry the dough out as much as possible but not let it brown.  Transfer to a FP container with the steel blade.
  6. In a small bowl, lightly beat eggs, vanilla,  stir the ammonium bicarbonate into the eggs, add it to the dough in FP and process.  Add egg whites gradually until well blended.  (Place a spoon of dough on a plate to see if it will stand without spreading out.  If not spreading too much, add more egg.)
  7. Spoon or pipe evenly spaced balls about 2.5 – 3.8 cm in diameter and about 2.5 cm high.  (I use 1 TBS cookie scooper and heap 50% more to achieve 1″ height.)
  8. Score with wet fork, in grids, spray water for keeping them moist and rising a little longer.
  9. (CAUTION) Wearing oven mitts, being careful to keep your arm and face out of the way of the blast of steam that shoots up, open the door,  place the towel to protect the glass imbedded in the oven door, pull out the pan with rock about 2″(5cm) forward, place the oven sheet with choux pastries, pour the boiling water into the pan with the hot rocks, remove the towel, immeidately close the door (letting the door push the steam pan back as it closes).  (See and Mark Witt’s YouTube video for steming the oven)
  10. Turn the oven down to 425F/218C and bake for 25 min (22 min,  actual), turn the oven down to 350F/177C and bake for another 20 min (8 min, turn off the heat, 12 min with residual heat, actual)  to dry the puffs out well. Remove from the oven and cut a small slit in the side of each puff to leat steam escape and dry the inside.  (Not Necessary To CUT SLIT.)  (Next time 400F should be high enough, 15 min is long enough for the initial baking, then one can dry/cool the crust in the oven for extra hours until done.)
  11. To store, cool completely and place in ziploc bags, frozen for 2 months.  To reheat and crisp, bake for 5 min at 325F/163C oven.


Reference: Pate a Choux Ordinaire, Shirley O. Corriher, Book 28, Bibliography

The bottom rose concave up too much, resulting in very little cavity left for tubing pastry cream.  The possible cause: I used the oven sheet, called “Reusable Cookie Sheet LIner,” that has Tefron coating on heat resistent plastic sheet.  It was so smooth and slippery that the dough might not be able to hang onto it.  The same happens when one put too much butter/grease on the sheet. 

After adding the flour, I found the dough to be too dry, hard, and lack of elasticity.  Since this has too little butter, the dough does not stretch well.

The final result was extraordinarily light, crisp, but slightly burned, and largely spread crust with almost no flavor but wheat gluten and egg white.  It reminded me of Japanese Wheat Gluten ‘Hu.’ 

The temperature setting is too high, for god sake.  And the duration of baking is too long.  I reduced the duration, and still developed burned bitterness.

There is absolutely no moisture in the crust: I believe the outside should be crisp, but inside should be moist to some extent.

The cracks on the Choux is rather wide, deep, and very ugly.  The possible reason is lack of soft elasticity/flexibility of the dough due to shortage of egg yolk and butter, as well as too much gluten due to the use of bread flour (hard flour), use of FP (developing too much gluten.)

Shortage of egg yolk due to additional egg white, made everything so unbalanced, as well as reduction of butter, unnecessary addition of too much ammonia bicaronate.  Corriher’s professional knowledge in food science blinded her, to a tunnel vision, losing a big picture, and balance of every ingredient and procedure.  The picture in her book looked very dry, hard, and thick walled, unappetizing one.  And it is really one of the worst Choux I ever tried.  I am very angry since I lost all time and ingredients.  But I learned a lot from this.  Experience speaks louder than science.

I changed the procedures a little: many steps were completely unnecessary, and made the matters worse.

02/16/2011 SC Orange Cream Puffs

Wednesday, February 16th, 2011

Ingredients: 5.5 pieces


  1. While Pastry Cream is still warm, add curacao and orange zest and stir.  Chill until firm, whisk to make it smooth.
  2. Cut top 1/3 of Choux Pastry, spoon in the Orange Pastry Cream.
  3. Garnish with powder sugar and optional gum drop flower/leaves.


Reference: Cream Puffs and orange flavored pastry cream, Shirley O. Corriher, Book 28, bibliography

In order to make up for the failured Pate a Choux, (that did not make enough cavity in the center ), I made the Choux inverted, drop the cream, sprinkled with powdered sugar, and topped with gum drop flower/leaves.

Gum drop flowers/leaves can be made by combining different colored gum drops (eg. red and white, purple and white, orange and white, red only, purple only), flatten with fingers in petal shapes.  One flower consisits of 5 petals and 1 yellow center: assemble everything together, squeezing with fingers.  (Pressure and sugar stickyness will attach themselves.)  Get green gum drop, flatten into a shape of leaf, use 3 each for one puff.  Use plenty of granulated sugar to avoid your fingers sticking to the gum drops.  The wamth of fingers soften the gum drops while shaping.  You just handle them as you did play-dough when you were young. (Southern Living Website has introduction to this technique: gum drop flower)

Orange Pastry Cream does not match Choux Pastry, in my opinion.

Corriher’s a taste-deaf food scientist.  I will not take her recipe seriously from now on.

01/31/2011 KK Cream Puffs

Monday, January 31st, 2011

Ingredients: 7 pieces (bottom dia 4.5 cm, middle dia 5 cm, hight 3.7 – 4.1 cm)

(Choux Pastry)

  • 50 g water  (plus additional 22.5 cc warm milk after adding all eggs)
  • 0.83 g salt
  • 0.83 g sugar
  • 18.75 g unsalted butter
  • 25 g cake flour
  • 37.5 g egg

(Custard Cream)

  • 200 cc  milk
  • 4 g vanilla extract
  • 40 g egg yolk ( or 2 egg yolk)
  • pinch salt
  • 50 g sugar
  • 20 g cake flour
  • 20 g unsalted butter, sliced


(Choux Pastry)

  1. Prepare Silpat in the half sheet pan.  Place a 1 TBS cookie scoop aside. Prepare water sprayer.
  2. Heat water, salt, sugar, butter in butter warmer.  Let it boil vigorously (100C)->increase starch viscocity.  Butter should be completely melted.
  3. Turn off the heat.  Add flour, stir with a wooden spatula until powder is incorporated.
  4. With Medium Heat on, in smearing parallel motion with a wooden spatula, quickly stir. It will lose the shines, but gradually get smooth and together. (80C)  At this stage, it is better not to have too much gloss: gloss means too much water loss and butter is separated and coming to surface, which disturbs egg to be absorbed in the next step.
  5. Transfer to anothe bowl.  Let it cool to 65C (to avoid egg coaggulation).  Add 75% of eggs. Stir with a wooden spatula.  Add the remaining gradually while checking the right hardness. The dough becomes glossy and drops from the saptula very slowly and triangle dough remains hung in spatula.  (30C)  Preheat oven at 425F.
  6.  Drop the dough on Silpat with a cookie scooper.  Spray with water, use wet fork or spoon to score, to smooth the surface area to make the escape of the steam easier and dry faster, resulting in crispiness.
  7. Bake at 200 C (395F) for 30 min.  Turn off the heat and cook 15 more minutes with residual heat. ( Pizza Stone Underneath to keep the temperature.)

(Custard Cream)

  1. In a bowl, mix egg yolk and sugar, use hand mixer until pale. (すりまぜ)
  2. Add flour and mix with a whisk or a hand mixer low speed. (すりまぜ)
  3. Boil milk in butter warmer, add 1/3 of it to the custard paste above. Mix.  Return it back to the original butter warmer and mix.   Heat with highest heat, while stirring vigorously with a whisk. 
  4. The first 1 – 2 min is easy to burn.  It starts to boil over.
  5. The dough starts to get tough, stir vigorously with a whisk.
  6. It gets glossy (since the sugar, that has low specific gravity, comes to the surface and make a membrane) and the bubbles up, then stop.  Turn off the heat. (In this stage the cream drops with thin stripes very swiftly. Gluten’s structure is broken and all ingredients are well-cooked in this stage.  If not, you tastes raw flour in the cream.)
  7. Add butter and mix to add flavor and gloss.  Add vanilla and mix.   Tightly cover with plastic wrap, chill in an ice-water bath, transfer to the refrigerator.  Fresh Custard Cream does not have profound flavor.  It is better to chill enough to intensify the falvour.


  1. When cream is chiled and firmed, transfer it to a bowl, stir with plastic spatula (Shamoji) until smooth and glossy.
  2. Poke the bottom of the Choux shell, pipe the cream into the shell.


Adapted from: シュー・パリゴー、河田勝彦、Book31,Bibliography

ORIGINAL/4.8 (for Choux Pastry),   Same as original for Custard Cream.

To compare with Tsuji Basic Choux Pastry, 2 times as much salt, 33% less eggs, addition of sugar.

To compare with Tsuji Basic Custard Cream, 5/6 of egg yolk, less sugar, addition of butter.

Custard Cream perhaps does not need butter at all.  Egg yolk can be even less than this.

The Choux shell was dry, tough, crisp: I don’t know if I like this very much.  Similar taste and texture to Tsuji Basic Choux Shell.  I forgot to sprinkle diced almonds; so Choux Parigot became plain Cream Puffs.

The initial water can be 3 times as much as the weight of flour when using oventop/butter warmer with this quanitiy.


  • 「フランス菓子は乾かすようにやくのが一番大事」
  • シューは気合、一気にねる。
  • 絞ったあとフォークでおさえつけるわけー>シュークリームがあまりでこぼこしない。(ごつごつすると、水分が抜けにくい。ー>湿気る、且つ、フォンダンをかけるとき、でこぼこしてたらやりにくい。)
  • 200Cで45-50分やいたら、通常底が むれるので網にうつすが、天板のまま粗熱をとる。しっかりやけてるのでだいじょうぶ。湿気にくい、生地がかわいてるので、アーモンドに生地の水分が移りにくいので香ばしい。
  • カスタードクリームは、菓子屋の基本。火にかけたまま練り、途中で手がおもくなってくるが、そこをとおりこしてすべてに火がとおるまで一気に気合をいれてねる。 
  • 生クリームをクリームにくわえないのは、ストレートでいきたいから。余分な水分をくわえず、あくまで乾いたシンプルなおいしさをもとめるため。

01/28/2011 Disaster Cream Puffs (total failure)

Friday, January 28th, 2011

Ingredients: 9 pieces (4.5 cm bottom dia, 5 cm middle dia, 2 – 2.7 cm height)

(Choux Pastry)

  • 12.5 g all purpose flour
  • 12.5 g cake flour
  • 0.91 g double acting baking powder
  • 0.81 g salt
  • 0.06 g baking soda
  • ———————
  • 22.7 g unsalted butter
  • 47.4  g hot water (Plan B: I made it 2.5 times as much, 118.5 g and cold water)
  • ———————–
  • 40 g egg, beaten, room temperature  (Plan B: Only 26.61 g was used, since I added too much water to start with and the dough became very soft not being able to add any more eggs..)

(Starch Cream: next time make twice as much)

  • 8.2 g corn starch
  • 19 g sugar
  • 160 cc milk
  • —————
  • 3.4 g unsalted butter
  • 1/4 tsp vanilla extract
  • 1/4 tsp almond extract
  • 1/8 tsp salt


  • powdered sugar

Procedures A: (This was the plan A: at step 3, the MW oven exploded [SUPERHEATING, BOILING DELAY, BOILING RETARDATION], abandoned the plan -> went to Plan B)

  1. Prepare Silpat in a half-sheet pan, and set 1 TBSP cookie scooper aside.
  2. Mix first  5 ingredeints with a whisk and sift.
  3. Mix hot water and butter, MW (covered with plastic wrap) until boiling point. (100C)


Procedures B: (This is plan B, but adding too much water initially screwed up.  But interesting discovery => a lot of water and less egg -> very thin and very crisp skin.)

  1. Prepare Silpat in a half-sheet pan, and set 1 TBSP cookie scooper aside.
  2. Mix first  5 ingredeints with a whisk and sift.
  3. Heat  water and butter in butter warmer over oventop until boiling point. (100C)
  4. Drop the flour mixture into boiling liquid at once.  Remove from the heat.  Stir vigorously with hand mixer until incorporated. (Too much water prevented it from coming together.) (At this point dough temp = 65C, too low, ideally 77C.)
  5. Heat it again  until dough temperature reaches 80C.  Stir vigorously with a spatula (not a hand mixer). (At this stage the dough contains too much water and loose.)
  6. Preheat the oven at 425 F.
  7. Transfer to another bowl wait until the dough cools to 65C.  Add 50% of eggs, stir with a spatula, then gradually add the eggs until the right hardness is attained. (Too soft to add all eggs.)
  8. Drop a dough with a cookie scooper. Spray water, correct the shape with back of the wet fork.
  9. Bake at 425F for 13 min, reduce to 375F for 17 min.  Turn off the heat, place a wooden spatula between the door and oven and let the puffs dry out for 45 min in the oven with residual heat.
  10. Cool at room temperature.

(Starch Cream)

  1. Whisk starch, sugar in a bowl, add milk gradually and whisk.
  2. MW about 3 min 30 sec, while stopping and whisking very often.
  3. Add butter, salt, vanilla, almond extract,  in this order, whisking after each addition.
  4. Transfer to a wet metal shallow plate, tightly cover with plastic wrap, place in an ice-water bath, refrigerate until firm.
  5. Transfer to a bowl, whisk until smooth.


  1. Cut the slit in each shell, spoon cream, and close.
  2. Sprinkle with powdered sugar, through a tea strainer.



Originally, I was heating hot water and butter (after melting butter in hot water completely) with MW oven, covered with Plastic wrap.  After 38 sec, it suddenly boiled over.  Then I stirred and returned to the MW oven.  Shortly after that, the whole liquid in Pyrex MC exploded.  It seems that the butter that made the top layer was preventing from the bottom half of water to boil, and when the water reached the boiling point, somehow, it suddenly exploded. [SUPERHEATING, BOILING DELAY, BOILING RETARDATION]

I have never had this experience, the difference was that I used hot water and already melted butter in stead of cold water from faucet and room temperature butter as usual.  I believe that when using MW oven, butter must be cold to start with for MW use, since by the time water hit boiling point butter is dangerously hot.  Also oil layer somehow gives water layer in vacuumed condition,  that contributes to superheating.

Covering with plastic wrap, even with vent and loosely covering, is still worsen superheating.  Not adding salt to water before heating also worsen the problem.

So I changed the plan and started over with  oven top and butter warmer.  I increased water to 2.5 times as much as original formula, that was a simple error.  I should have multiplied the weight of the flour by 2.5 instead of weight of original water formula.  The correct initial water amount should have been 62.5 g instead of 118.5 g, which is 4.74 times as much as the weight of flour.  Since there are too much water left, I could not add all eggs, only 106% of flour, where Tsuji Basic Formula uses eggs that are 167% of flour.  Too much water and lack of eggs caused low rise and extraordinarily thin skin of the shell.  There were not a lot of splits, although it actually rose quite well initially, but it stopped rising after 9 min of baking.

Addition of baking powder and baking soda did not help since baking powder probably lost the effectiveness when water is added and cooked quite a long time.  The amount of bakng soda was quite trivial.  Both leavenings added slightly bitter after-taste. 

The skin was very thin, soft and crisp.  It was not very bad, actually.  But the volume was so small and looked bad.  The temperature was mostly right on spot, so alpha starch was developed enough.  Gluten was not developed very well, since most stirring was made when temperature was high.  That resulted in better taste, actually.  Shortage of egg also contributed not enough structure.

Tsuji Formula: water 41.67, butter 18.75, salt 0.417, flour 25, egg 41.67

This Formula: water 118.5, butter 22.7, salt 0.81, flour 25, egg 26.61

01/26/2011 Urawaza Cream Puffs

Wednesday, January 26th, 2011

Ingredients: 8 pieces (5-6 cm bottom dia, 5.5-6 cm middle dia, 3-4 cm height) 

(Choux Pastry)

  • 40 cc water
  • pinch salt
  • 25 g unsalted butter, room temperature
  • 25 g cake flour, sifted, transfer to a small container to make it easy to dropped in the boiling water
  • 50 g egg, room temperature (This time, 1 egg, 55.12 g: it was too much)

(Custard Cream: next time make twice as much)

  • 20 g egg yolk (1 egg yolk)
  • 1.5 TBSP sugar
  • pinch salt
  • 1/2 TBSP cake flour
  • 75 cc milk
  • a little vanilla extract

(Final Assembly)

  • some heavy cream
  • some sugar
  • some powdered sugar


(Choux Pastry)

  1. Prepare Silpat lined in a half sheet pan.  Set the rack at the lowest level in the oven. 
  2. In a 1 C Pyrex MC (at least 8 cm tall), mix salt and water, drop butter.  MW(1.6 kw), covered with plastic wrap, and let it boil. (Total 1 min 30 sec: every time it starts to boil up, measure the temperature of the bottom water.  It must be boild until the water temp becomes about 100C. I measured every 30 sec.)
  3. Add flour immediately, at once. (It will splash: be careful so that you don’t burn yourself.)
  4. Mix vigorously with a spatula until it gets together. (I used a hand mixer.)
  5. Preheat the oven at 200C (400F).
  6. Add 1/2 of egg and mix well,  add remaining of egg gradually, watching the texture, and mix well.  Confirm that the dough is in right textures with triangle remaining when dropped from spatula. (I added the last half of the egg at once, and made it slightly too soft.  My mistake.)
  7. Transfer to the decoration bag, tube in swiring motion, such as in soft served cream is served. (about 3 – 3.5 cm diameter at the bottom)  (But I used a 1 TBSP cookie scooper, causing the resulting shell lower than the original.)
  8. Spray with water.
  9. Bake at 400F(200C) for 15 min, 375F for 6 min, 350F for 7 min,  turn off the heat.  Open the door and place a wooden spatula between the oven and door to keep slight gap for the steam and heat to escape gradually (at least 45 min).
  10. Cool at room temperature.

(Custard Cream)

  1. Whisk all ingredients for the cream in a Pyrex small bowl.
  2. MW, covered with plastic wrap, 30 sec, stop and whisk.  Repeat MW and whisking two more times.
  3. Add vanilla and whisk.
  4. Transfer it in a wet shallow metal pan, wrap tightly with plastic wrap, chill in an ice water bath, transfer to the refrigerator, until set firmly.
  5. Transfer to a bowl and whisk until smooth.


  1. Cut 1/3 top of the Choux shell, spoon the custard cream at the bottom.
  2. Mix heavy cream and sugar, whip until stiff with a hand mixer.
  3. Spoon the whipped cream over the custard cream layer in the shell.
  4. Close the lid of Choux shell.
  5. Sprinkle the powdered sugar through a tea strainer.


Adapted from: 裏わざシュークリーム、

This technique was shown in YouTube, recorded TV program aired in Japan (日本テレビ、伊藤家の食卓 裏技れしぴ)。

The original/2.

I added salt for both Choux and custard cream.  I also replaced ready made pancake mix with simple cake flour and vanilla extract.

The splits are ugly and few, and there are some holes, implying that the alpha starch was not developed enough due to lack of 2nd heating after adding the flour.  Use of handmixer made gluten developed, it tastes like wheat gluten, lacks of shininess, slightly harder texture, perhaps thicker walls.  It did not rise well as expected; but the original procedures tubed the dough in spiral up soft-served ice cream shape, and that I guess my use of a cookie scoop had the disadvantage of shorter height before baking. 

I added too much eggs and the dough was slightly soft.  And I did not care to correct the shape when I added the last dough on tope of each shell.  Thus the resulting shell has a little bit of hat on top of each shell.  8 shells were made although the original was for 4.5 pieces for this amount.  So it proves that the dough was piped 2 times as high to start with.  This is a trick.

The Choux formula has 33% more butter, 20% more eggs than the Tsuji Basic formula.

The original Choux formula instructed baking at 190C for 30 min.  I changed the temperature to fit my needs.

For the initial boiling of water/butter mixture, butter goes up and water sinks.  So when taking temperature, one should put the probe down to the bottom layer to check the water temperature since butter temperature is above 100F and water temperature could be 70F.  For that reason, perhaps it is not necessary to make the butrer warmed to the room temperature intially.

Skipping the 2nd heating (after adding flour)required less water.  I used to start with extra water; but as long as I make the heating time short, there is no necessity to start with extra water?

The formula given for Custard Cream was for 4.5 pieces of the tall cream puff.  Since I ended up with 8 shorter pieces, I needed more Custard Cream than this.  Next time, it is better to make twice as much.  I made up with more whipped cream to fill the gap.

The Procedures for Custard Cream is very poor.  This produces unsmooth cream since flour tend to make lumps being mixed like this.  Even the original demonstration showed terrible lumps in the cream.  I never follow this recipe again.  The original used Pan-Cake-Mix probably since it is made to easily dissolve in liquid without causing too much lumps.

My possible mistakes and the faluts of the procedures:

  • Heating after adding the flour is necessary. Temperature was 59.20 after adding and mixing the flour, from this time on, there is no alpha starch could be developed.
  • Use of hand mixer immediately after adding flour is OK, since it helps alpha starch development as long as the temperature is above 78C.   But the use of hand mixer when eggs are added was not a good idea since it over-develop the gluten.
  • Adding too much eggs:  it was slightly softer than robust, dropping in thin string, making thinner and smaller triangle remaining. 

01/25/2011 BI Cream Puffs

Tuesday, January 25th, 2011

Ingredients: 7  pieces, (bottom dia 4.4 cm, middle dia 6.3 cm, height 3.7 cm)

(Cream Puff Pastry)

  • 35.3 g egg, room temp.
  • 10.6 g egg white, room temp.
  • 25.1 g unsalted butter, sliced, room temp.
  • 10.8 g milk
  • 39.2 g water
  • 2.22 g sugar
  • 0.53 g salt
  • 25 g all purpose flour, sifted

(Custard Cream:next time, make 1.5 times as much)

  • 35.3 g egg yolk (about 2 egg yolks)
  • 8.75 g sugar
  • ——————-
  • 21.2 g heavy cream
  • 129.2 g milk
  • 26.25 g sugar
  • 0.14 g salt
  • ——————
  • 10.6 g corn starch
  • 20.1 g unsalted butter
  • 2.22 g vanilla extract


  • some powder sugar


(Choux Pastry)

  1. Prepare Silpat lined in a half sheet pan.  Place 1 TBSP cookie scooper aside.
  2. Beat egg and egg white in a small container.
  3. In 1 C Pyrex MC, mix milk, water, sugar, salt, drop butter in, and MW (1.6 kw, covered with plastic wrap) for 30 sec and whisk, 23 sec, check the temperature (this time 99.6 C), until it reaches boiling point. (At full boil, butter should be fully melted.)
  4. Turn off the heat, drop the flour at once, stir with a spatula, until the dough clears the sides of the container. (Actual dough temp. was 67.4 C after this step.)
  5. MW total 39 sec, while stopping and stirring 2-3 times.  Stir with a smearing motion (すりまぜ)until slightly shiny, looking like wet sand, with tiny beads of fat at the bottom of the container.  (The ideal dough temperature: 175 – 180 F, 79.4-82.2C)( I probably overheated and the butter started to sizzle.)
  6. Preheat the oven at 425F.
  7. Transfer to FP, run the machine with feed tube open for 10 sec to cool slightly.  With the machine running, gradually add eggs in a steady stream.  After all eggs are added, scrape down the sides of the container, process for 30 sec until smooth. ( I did not use FP, instead I used only spatula and manually mixed.  At this stage, actual dough temp. was 43.7C.)
  8. (If you cannot use it immediately, transfer to the bowl, spray plastic wrap with cooking oil and press it directly to the dough surface, store at room temperature for up to 2 hours.)
  9. Adjust an oven rack to the middle position and heat the oven at 425F.
  10. Scoop the dough with 1 TBSP cookie scooper and drop on Silpat, with at least 1 – 1.25″ (2.5 -3.2 cm) apart from each other.
  11. Spray with water and use a wet fork  or back of spoon to correct the shape.
  12. Bake 15 min at 425F, then reduce to 375F for 8 min.
  13. With a knife, cut a 3/4 inch slit into the side of each puff to release steam. (Cutting the slit was completely unnecessary.  This did not make any differeneces.) Return the puffs to the oven, turn off the oven, place a handle of wooden spoon between the oven and oven door to keep the door slightlyopen.  Keep it for 45 min to dry the puffs.
  14. Transfer to a wire rack to cool at room temperature.
  15. (It can be stored at room temperature for 24 hours, crisp at 300F for 5-8 min.  It can be  frozen in a zip-lock bag for up to 1 month and crisp at 300F for 8-10 min)

(Custard Cream)

  1. Whip egg yolk and sugar with hand mixer until pale.
  2. Add starch and whip more.
  3. MW(1.6 kw) cream, milk, sugar, and salt for 1 min, until just before boiling point.
  4. Add hot milk mixture into egg mixture gradually while whisking.
  5. MW 30 sec, whisk, 20 sec, whisk, 10 sec, whisk, until the right thickness is attained.
  6. Add butter and whisk.
  7. Add vinalla and whisk.
  8. Pour it over the wet shallow metal pan, cover tight with plastic wrap, place in the ice-water bath, refrigerate until firm.
  9. Transfer it to a bowl, whisk until smooth.


  1. Cut 1/3 top of the Choux.  Use a spoon to fill the Choux with custard cream.
  2. Sprinkle with powder sugar through a tea strainer.


Adapted from: Cream Puffs and Pastry Cream, Book 30, Bibliography

original x 0.353

Total 912.5 kcal:  Choux Pastry 340.29 kcal + Pastry Cream 572.21 kcal  Much heavier than Japanese recipes.

Slightly red tint implies that butter was overcooked and slightly separated when the dough was cooked after adding the powder.

The symptom of this low rise resembles the case in which the dough needed more liquid in the final stage.  I should have added more liquid/egg to this recipe. Error in determining when to stop egg mixture in the end.  And overcooking in the first and second stages and losing too much water.

Also, is it possible that 425 F was too high a temperature?  Did the surface dry too quickly before rising?  Should I have sprayed water more?  This resembles the result attained when water spraying or egg wash applying was skipped.  Although the baking illustrated editor claims spraying water is a bogus, it is their shortsitedness to reach such an egghead smart ass conclusion.  Their commercial size high tech expensive ovens are not owned by any ordinary housewives unless we were billionaires.  One who owns smaller simpler oven, without steaming function, spraying water or applying egg wash to prevent premature dryness could be essential.  Japanese Tsuji Culinary School’s baking science book actually shows the picture comparisons of the results with and without spraying water.  And Baking Illustrated’s claim has been disproved.  I sprayed water; but since Baking Illustrated unsignifed the water spraying was a myth, I did not sprayed lighter than usual.  I might have contributed to my imperfect result.

While mixing the flour, since there are too much butter, I did not see any viscosity developing no matter how hard I mix with spatula.  I used spatula only (not hand mixer, nor FP) since I wanted to avoid gluten over development since this used all purpose flour, harder flour than cake flour.)  But since there are too much butter, use of FP in moderation might have balanced lack of viscosity/structure in the dough and improved the result.  But I am not sure if the taste might suffer a little due to gluten development more or less.

More egg white and less egg yolk in the dough lightened up and crisped the shell; but it might be the reason that excess butter was not distributed enough due to shortage of egg yolk, which might have resulted in the low rise.

The taste is perhaps one of the best.  It is rich, crisp, and different from the Japanese recipes that use cake flour instead of all purpose flour.  This includes more butter and sugar, so it tastes rich.

Usually baking 6 – 7 min starts rising, 9 min starts splitting, 13 – 15 min stop rising,  for 25 g flour formula for the Choux Pastry, from my experience.

01/20/2011 T Basic Cream Puffs

Thursday, January 20th, 2011

Ingredients: 8 Puffs (5 cm dia, 4.5 cm bottom dia, 3.2-3.5 cm high) + Custard Cream enough for 10 puffs.)

(Puff Pastry: 8 puffs)

  • 50 g water + additinal 2 tsp (10 g) water after addition of all eggs.
  • 18.8 g unsalted butter, sliced, room temperature
  • 0.42 g salt
  • 25 g cake flour, sifted
  • 46.9 g eggs, beaten, room temperature

(Custard Cream: enough for 10 puffs, next time make only 80%  for 8 puffs)

  • 104 g yolk (next time, it should be reduced to 2/3 or less)
  • pinch salt
  • 86.7 g sugar
  • 28.9 g cake flour
  • 289 g milk
  • 2.9 g vanilla extract


  • some powder sugar


(Make Choux)

  1. Prepare Silpat lined in a half sheet pan.
  2. Mix water and salt in a butter warmer, drop butter, heat with low heat (30%) until butter melts, increase the heat to medium (50%) to boil vigorously.
  3. Add flour at once, remove from the heat and vigorously mix with wooden spatula until doug gets together.
  4. Heat it with medium heat again, while mixing with a wooden spatula vigorously until the thin membrane forms at the bottom of the butter warmer. (Here the temperature only went up to 78C, not reaching 80C: perhaps due to small amount, it is easy to cook while cooking in butter warmer.  Or I should have made the heat stronger, since what I have is a On or Off mode electric oventop, not providing continuous heat adjustment.)
  5. Preheat the oven at 425F.
  6. Remove from the heat, transfer to a bowl, add 75% of eggs at once, use hand mixer to mix, add the remaining egg little by little checking the texture of the dough.  (After adding all the eggs, I needed to add extra 2 tsp water to reach the right hardness.)
  7. Immediately, drop the dough using a 1 TBSP cookie scooper on Silpat lined half sheet pan. 
  8. Spray with water.  Use a back of wet spoon to correct the shape.  Place it in the oven.
  9. Place it in the oven.  Reduce the temperature to 400F(200C), bake for 13 min, then reduce the heat to 360F(180C), bake for 12 min.  Turn off the heat. Open the door and let the steam escape from the oven, close the door, let the choux dry in the oven with residual heat for at least 30 min.
  10. Remove from the oven.  Cool at room temperature, completely.

(Make Cream)

  1. Whip yolk, sugar, and salt in a 2 C Pyrex MC with a hand mixer until pale.
  2. Add flour and mix well.  Transfer it to the medium bowl.
  3. MW milk until just below boiling point (1.6KW, about 2 min).  Add hot milk gradually into the custard while whisking. (If you have time, pour through a strainer: I didn’t do it.)
  4. MW total 2 min 8 sec, while stopping and whisking every 1 min or more frequently in process.  ( Cook longer next time.)
  5. Whisk and add vanilla extract and whisk.
  6. Pour it over the wet shallow metal pan. Tight wrap with plastic wrap.  Chill quickly with an ice water bath.  Transfer to refrigerator and chill until firm.
  7. Transfer it to a bowl and whisk until smooth.


  1. Cut the top 1/3 off Choux Shell, use spoon to fill with cream, cover with the Choux Lid. 
  2. Sprinkle with powder sugar through a tea strainer.
  3. Refrigerate.


Based on:  シュー生地 Pate a Choux、カスタードクリーム Creme Patissiere 、Book 27, Bibliography

Pate a Choux: original/4.8,   Creme Patissiere: original/3.46

It takes initial water, twice the weight of flour, for MW method.  It takes water, 2.4 times the flour, for butter warmer, stove top method.  MW loses less water if covered by plastic wrap when heating.

This Choux is smaller, harder, the skin is thicker, bottom is concave down, compared to the previous puff that I made yesterday.  (Cream Puff with whole custard cream: 01/19/2011)

It showed the symptom of less butter and less egg, with too much viscocity developed in the dough, either too much alpha starch or gluten development.  I believe, when adding the eggs, using hand mixer too long might have something to do with this shortcoming.  However, acutal formula with less butter and egg should be the main cause.

Yesterday’s puff used MW instead of oventop, includes 33 % more butter and 28% more eggs.  The bottom is concave up.  It spread more to have larger diameter and rose slightly higher.

Two on the left: yesterday’s puffs,  Two on the right: today’s puffs.

Left: yesterday’s puff, Right: today’s puff.


This particular Pastry Cream used 1.5 times as much yolk as regular Pastry Cream.  Thus it has strong yellow color, and has distinctive yolky taste.  Due to yolk, it is very smooth and rich.  But I prefer less yolk than this.  The cream became too soft: I should have cooked longer.

01/19/2011 Cream Puffs with Whole Egg Custard Cream

Wednesday, January 19th, 2011

Ingredients: 8 Puffs ( about 5.5 – 6 cm top dia, 4.7 cm bottom dia, 4.7 cm height)

  • pinch salt
  • 50 cc water
  • 25 g butter, sliced, room temperature
  • 25 g cake flour, sifted
  • 60 g egg, room temperature, beaten
  • ————
  • 1.33 portion Whole Egg Custard Cream (Multiply the recipe by 1.33)
  • some powdered sugar.


  1. Prepare Silpat in the half-sheet-pan.
  2. In 1 C Pyrex MC, mix salt and water, drop butter, cover with plastic wrap, MW(1.6kw) for 1 min, until it boils and reaches the boiling point (99C for my area.)  (500W: 3 min 30 sec)
  3. Add flour immediately at once and whisk vigorously.  Switch to a hand mixer and mix vigorously.  Use a spatula to finish up the first mixing stage.
  4. MW again for 30 sec, stir with hand mixer, MW 20 sec, (until the sound of oil burning starts: 98C) stir with hand mixer.
  5. Preheat the oven at 425F. (218C)
  6. Add 75% of eggs to the dough and mix with the hand mixer with low speed.
  7. Add the rest little by little, and mix, while checking the texture of the dough. (I used all the eggs this time.  The dough was very sticky and slowly drop from the whisk attachment and remains in the traingle shape. (The dough was 31.3C at this stage.)
  8. Use 1 TBS Cookie Scooper (3.5cm diameter hemi-sphere) to scoop the dough and drop it on the Silpat.
  9. Spray with water, adjust the shape with the back of wet spoon.
  10. Place it in the oven, reduce the heat to 400F (200C) and bake for 13 min, reduce the heat to 350F(180C) and bake for 15 min.  Turn off the heat.
  11. Open the door and let the steam be out.  Close the door and let it cool and dry in the oven for at least 30 min.
  12. Remove from the oven.  Cool completely at room temperature.
  13. Use a tip of knife to make a small whole at the bottom of each Choux, use a plain round tip with small opening and decorationg bag to pipe the Custard Cream into each Choux.
  14. Sprinkle powdered sugar through a tea strainer.


Inspired by: 簡単電子レンジシュークリーム、りょう子、

I added salt to the original and increased water to 150% of the original.  I changed the procedures to fit my environments.

I give myself a grade ‘B’ for this performance. 

I started from 150% water since I failed repeatedly by following other recipes strictly, and every time, I encountered too hard dough after adding all eggs.  I think that the main cause of my previous failures was losing too much water in the initial cooking of water/butter/salt, due to the small quantity formula.  Using MW or butter warmer on the stove top did not make any differences: thus the failure was not caused by using MW.  Adding water afterward did not help since the starch was to be alphatized before egg is added.  And enough hot water is necessary for development of alpha starch.

I also used hand mixers to accelerate the alpha starch development, more intensively than before.  It helped.  But due to large amount of butter (fat), it does not develope viscosity easily. Using a spatula (wooden or silicon) in smearing fashion, while pressing against the pan/bowl seems to help to develop viscosity more.

Initial heating should reach at least the boiling point.  In my area, boiling point is about 99C.  So I made sure this time that water/butter/salt mixture reached 99C, which helped.

Due to large amount of fat and little gluten in cake flour, gluten does not seem to be counted for the structure of the puff.  The main purpose of stirring the dough vigorously for a long time is to develop alpha starch.  But the fat also prevents the starch to absorb water, which in turn prevent it from changing to alpha.  So extreme stirring in short period time (to keep the dough warm) is a key for the success.

Some pastry chef recommends not to overwork/overmix the dough in the various stage of mixing; but that does not probably apply for the Choux using cake flour.  My guess is if you overmix the dough consisiting of higher gluten, the gluten develops too much elasticity, which may prevent the Choux to rise since water in the dough needs to push up the dough.  Gluten’s strength is necessary; but if it goes beyond certain range, it would cause the failure.

This Choux formula uses 33% more butter and 28% more eggs than the  Tsuji Culinary School’s basic formula.  And this results in softer skin, wider diameter and slightly higher height than the basic formula.

01/15/2011 T Chou Cream Puff I (To be improved)

Saturday, January 15th, 2011

Ingredients: 6.5 pieces, inital pipeing diameter 4.5 cm

(Choux Pastry)

  • bread flour (to mark the Silicon Mat)
  • ———————————
  • 52.1 g water ( + additional warm water 27.9 g: 53.55% of the original water was added after adding all eggs.)
  • 18.8 g unsalted butter, sliced thin, room temperature 
  • 0.42 g salt
  • 25 g cake flour, sifted
  • 41.7 g egg, beaten, room temperature

(Diplomat Cream)

  • 86 g  milk
  • 2 cc vanilla extract  (slightly less than 1/2 tsp)
  • 16.7 g egg yolk
  • 25 g sugar
  • 2.5 g cake flour
  • 2.5 g corn starch
  • ———————-
  • 58.4 g heavy cream


  • Some powdered sugar


(Make Choux Pastry)

  1. Prepare Silpat or Silicon Mat in baking sheet pan.  Use 5 cm diameter round cookie cutter and bread flour to make 7 circles on the Silicon Mat.
  2. Prepare 1.3 cm round tip in the decoration bag.
  3. In a small pan (590 cc butter warmer), place water, salt, and mix, add butter.  Heat with low(30%) heat until butter begins to melt, increase the heat to high(100%) until boiling. (ぐつぐつというかんじまで)
  4. When butter melted and boiled (ideally simultaneously), turn off the heat, add flour at once.  Stir very well until it gets together.
  5. Heat in medium heat, stirring well, let excess water evaporate and cook the dough slowly and very well, until the thin membrane forms at the bottom of the pan.
  6. Transfer it to the bowl and add 1/3 of beaten eggs, cut vertically with spatula to increase the dough’s surface area, and slowly stir.  Then add another 1/3 and stir well.  While watching the hardness of the dough add egg gradually until the dough slowly but continuously fall from the spatula and remain in nice triangle.  (たーらたーらとつながってゆっくり帯状におちてゆき、きれいな3角形にのこる。)
  7. Preheat oven at 180C. (360F)
  8. Transfer the dough into a decoration bag and tube to the Silicon Mat.(一定の高さから力を加えてしぼり「の」の字にツイストしながらひきあげる。)
  9. Spray with water, and press the top with wet fork in grids.
  10. Bake at 180C(360F) for 36 min.  ( I left it in the oven even after turning off the heat.)
  11. Cool at room temperature.

 (Make Diplomat Cream) 

  1. Prepare a decoration bag with 1.3 cm round tip. (I skipped using th bag, and used a spoon in the end to fill the cream.)
  2. Mix cake flour and corn starch, sift the mixture.
  3. Place egg yolk in a 1C Pyrex MC, beat well.
  4. Add sugar at once and whisk until very white. (すりまぜ)(Better to use a handmixer.)
  5. Add flour mixture and mix with whisk, as drawing spiral circles slowly on the bowl surface, so that it won’t increase the viscocity. (さっくり)
  6. MW(1.6kw)  milk for 55 sec until it boils.
  7. Add 1/3 of boiling milk and stir ( to decrease the density of the dough), then add the remaining milk and stir. 
  8. Transfer it through a strainer to the original milk pan. (I skipped.)
  9. Heat (medium heat) , stirring and scraping bottom and corner with a whisk, until the dough is fluid cream. (たらーというかんじで細い筋になっておちる。)
  10. Transfer to the wet shallow metal pan, cover with plastic wrap tight (to avoid drying), chill with an ice-water bath immediately.
  11. After cooling/hardening, transfer to a bowl, stir in vanilla with a spatula slowly until soft and smooth, in circular motion.  (Do NOT overmix.)  (どろーっというかんじでゆっくるおちる。シューより硬いかんじ。)
  12. Whip heavy cream with an ice-water bath, until very stiff, such that the cream looks grabbed and imbedded between wires of the whisk  (90% stiffness).
  13. Add 1/3 of  whipped cream into the custard cream and fold.  And fold the remaining whipped cream.  (Whipped Cream is not stable with heat, so fold it quickly.)
  14. Transfer it into the decoration bag and keep it in the refrigerator.


  1. Make a deep slit into 1/3 top horizontal line with the last 10% line still attached, like Pac-Man.  (Before you cut, try to make the nice looking face to be front.)
  2. Tube plenty of cream in the hollow of each puff through the opening.


Based on: シュークリーム、辻調の楽しい食卓 洋菓子編1、  and YouTube related video.

This time, I piped a little smaller than 5 cm diameter mark. Probably actualy diameter piped was about 4.5cm diameter.

Original recipe was multiplied by 0.417 to make the flour to be 25 g.

The final shape: diameter 5.3 cm height 2.6 – 3.8 cm (Height needs to be improved.)

Texture and taste are OK.  But the final dough’s being too hard and necessity to add extra warm water and low rising are still the problems.  There were very few cracks developed in the dough, very similar symptom as failure caused by not boiling water/butter/salt mixture.  Since I boiled the mixture very well, I think more cooking after adding flour was required to develop starch viscocity.

Possible resaons:

  1.  Mixing in the early stage while cooking is not enough: Alpha starch and gluten are not developed enough.
  2. Low temperature of oven setting: Japanese people use very small oven which tend to have higher temperature since everything is adjacent to heat sauce.  American oven is much larger and tend to have lower temperature then the Japanese oven.  So the recipe developed for Japanese household tend to have lower temperature than necessary in American oven. 360F is verly low compared to American recipe that calls at leat 400F for Choux Pastry, usually.

Hevy cream should have been whisked slightly more: the resulting diplomat cream became slightly softer than the ideal.

Total 731 kcal